Why read the Book of Deuteronomy at the Feast every 7 Years?

Why Read the Book of Deuteronomy at the Feast Every 7 Years?

 

How does the book of Deuteronomy apply to Christians in this New Testament era of the Church?

 

To find the answer we need to familiarise ourselves with the reason why God called out a nation, which he was going to use as an example to reveal His plan of salvation, which will be available to everyone.

 

God promised Abraham 400 years earlier that he would lead the descendants out of captivity and set them in a new land (The Promised Land) Gen 15:13-21. He also called them a kingdom of priests, a Holy Nation (Exod 19: 5-6) when He made the Covenant with them at Mt Sinai.

 

Of course, Israel was to obey the terms of the Covenant, to reap the benefits of the promises he laid with them. They said, “We will do” (Ex 19:8) Unfortunately, Israel did not keep their side of the bargain and disobeyed the laws and ordinances. The result was to wander in the wilderness for the next 40 years as a punishment, Ex 14:20, 30, 33-34. This was because of the mission of the spy’s incident.

 

At the end of the 40 years in the wilderness Moses called the people together on the Plains of Moab and (Deut 1: 1-5) gave them the second set of laws and ordinances which were given BESIDES the one at Sinai (Mt Horeb) Deut 29:1. Moses gave a second Covenant as they prepared to enter the Promised Land and it was different to the first one. Most Covenant article state that they were the same with only a few updates according to the time and travelling adjustments.

 

The answer is that the 2 covenants were for 2 different sets of people. We already know from the Bible and history that the first was for the people God called out, that is, Israel, whom He worked with until they went into captivity. The other covenant recorded in Deuteronomy was for a future people. This is revealed in scripture and we will address that claim now.

This where the question “Why read the Book od Deuteronomy at the Feast every 7 years” is answered!

 

Consider this: at Mt Sinai, the law was given in a dramatic event, there were dark clouds, trembling, smoke, lightening and a piercing sound of blowing like a trumpet, Ex 19:16-19. This experience would have stayed in the minds of those present for a long time. Add to that, Moses wrote it all down on tablets of stone – all very impressive! Conversely, Moses only spoke this second Covenant to the people who had survived the 40 years in the wilderness. These people hadn’t heard the Mt Sinai incident except Joshua & Caleb (who entered the Promised Land) (Num 14:30). The verbal commands Moses spoke could easily be lost.

 

Let’s look at more interesting details – the first Covenant was delivered and ratified with blood by the young men (Ex 24:5-8); the second was NOT…That’s interesting – maybe sometime in the future it will be – actually, it has been! We’ll keep on this point, Moses was commanded to put the testimony (first Covenant) IN the Ark of the Covenant 40 years earlier (Exod 40:3&20) and now on the Plains of Moab (40 years later), Moses tells the Levites to “take this book of the Law and put it BY THE SIDE of the Ark of the Covenant” – a vulnerable place to put God’s word unlike the first – safe in the Ark.

So, let’s recap:

Exodus Covenant

  • ratified with blood (Heb 9:18-22, Exod 24:6-8)
  • nobody can add to or take away from it (Deut 4:2, Deut 12:32)
  • Placed INSIDE the Ark
  • Covenant set

Deuteronomy Covenant

  • Not ratified with blood (not yet at that point)
  • Not part of the Old Covenant
  • Placed at the SIDE of the Ark (Deut 31:26)
  • For others not there that day (Deut 29:10-15)

Before answering the question ‘Why read Deuteronomy every 7 years?’ lets add a few more scriptures: In Deuteronomy 29:10-15 we read that this Covenant being made on the Plains of Moab was for OTHERS who were not here today. Who are the others? God was not working with any other nation at that time, but not so in the future!

 

It would be appropriate to show the promise from God to those who fear Him, (Psalm 25:14) “The secret of the Lord is with those who fear Him and He will show them His Covenant” This scripture indicates that the Covenant is a secret and the Lord will reveal it to those who are diligently seeking it.

 

This sets the stage for the next topic, what does the Covenant in Deuteronomy contain? In the margins of some Bibles there are footnotes. It is fascinating to see that when reading about the teachings of Jesus, and the apostles, we see that they regularly refer back to Deuteronomy.

 

We know that Jesus’ death ushers in these things:

  • Jesus’ death ushered in a new Covenant (Mat 26:28)
  • It is a better Covenant (Heb 8:6)
  • It abolished the Old Covenant for the New (Heb 10:9)
  • Jesus Christ is the mediator of the New Covenant (Heb 9:15) (Heb 8,9 & 10)

 

Now if all the footnotes in the RSV are recorded and compared with the Deuteronomy Covenant laws and ordinances, we see there are approximately 44 matches. This is amazing, as it indicates that this second covenant reflects the teachings of Jesus! Remember Jesus himself said His parables were hidden to the people except the disciples (Matt 13:11), see the following examples: Matt 5:27 (adultery) and Deut 5:18, and Mat 16:15 (2 or more witnesses) and Deut 17:6.

 

Here is more evidence that the Deuteronomy Covenant was not recorded like the Exodus Covenant on tablets of stone with a smoking mountain, thunder and lightning.

 

Deut 5:1 – Moses was to summon all Israel and tell them the statutes and judgements (verse 1), he was then told to tell the people, in verse 30, ‘return to your tents again’, but Moses was told in verse 31 ‘But you, stand here by me, and I will tell you all the commandment and the statutes and the ordinances which you shall teach them, that they may do them in the land which I give them to possess.' So in affect God told Moses what to teach the people while he only was in the presence of God.

In review – What have we learned from the pages of God’s word:

  1. There are two different covenants – given 40 years apart
  2. Old Covenant in Exodus with approx. 70 Statutes and Ordinances, Deuteronomy Covenant has approx. 80, of which 8 are the same and 6 are similar.
  3. Deuteronomy Covenant made with ‘others not here’
  4. Old Covenant placed safely in the Ark of the Covenant; Deuteronomy Covenant placed beside the Ark
  5. Old Covenant ratified with blood (of animals), Deuteronomy Covenant not ratified until Jesus’ came and shed His blood (Matt 26:27)
  6. Jesus’ blood ushered in the New Covenant in his last Passover night
  7. Jesus’ teachings reflected in the Deuteronomy Covenant in the book of Deuteronomy

So, Why read the Book od Deuteronomy at the Feast every 7 years?

 

Deut 31:10-11 states that when God’s people meet at the Feast of Tabernacles, on the seventh year they were to read the Book of Deuteronomy ‘in their hearing’. This meant that they were receiving the teachings of Jesus, unknowingly, two thousand years before He arrived on the scene. It was a witness and something that the prophets longed to see. (Matt 13:17, Luke 10:23, 1 Pet 1:10)

 

So, the instruction God gave to Moses: that you read the Book of Deuteronomy every seventh year at the Feast of Tabernacles ‘in their hearing’ could very well apply to us as we, New Covenant Christians attend the Feast – where we celebrate the return of Jesus Christ when He will set-up the Kingdom of God here on earth to last for 1000 years.

 

What better way to learn about our Saviour and King than to have it expounded at the Feast of Tabernacles and how exciting to know that it has already been revealed in the Book of Deuteronomy years ago.

 

Let’s quote again Psalms 25:14

The secret of the LORD is with them that fear him; and he will shew them His Covenant.KJV

Leviticus 16 Chart

This easy to read chart shows all the events which occurred at the Tabernacle on the Day of Atonement.

Follow the sequence of events as per the boxes and the accompanying scriptures to reveal the meaning of the ceremony.

Lev 16 Atonement Ceremony Chart

In this chart it is given in stages: cleansing of sin for the high priest; his household; the temple/tabernacle; the congregation; Jesus Christ's death; then in the future the rest of mankind.

************************************************************************

 

In the book of Leviticus 16 we are shown a strange ceremony that was given to the people (after the Exodus) not long after the Covenant was given on Mt Sinai (Exod 24:4-8).

 

Exodus reveals that the Old Covenant was made with the people of Israel 3 months out of Egypt.

 

The Tabernacle was erected on the 1st day of the 1st month of the SECOND year (Exod 40:17). The departure from Mt Sinai to Paran was on the 20th day of the second month of the second year (Num 10:11) So the ceremony for the Day of Atonement was established during this period.

 

The chart above shows the procedure the High Priest followed and the relevant scriptures in the Bible.

 

This day was given to God’s people to observe once a year so that they could be cleansed of their sins, by means of covering them. They were not forgiven permanently, only covered.

 

This ceremony was performed yearly and added to the Holy Day list in Leviticus 23:26 and Numbers 29:7.

 

Note the meaning of the words Atonement (Strong’s 3722) meaning ‘covering’, and ‘Azazel’ (Strong’s 5799) “Goat of Departure”.

 

Azazel is the “Goat of Departure” – we need to show what happens when this goat departs to the wilderness – by looking at the chart you will notice that goat ‘B’ or goat ‘2’ avoids the cleansing and coverings of the high priest and people, so it seems, that it misses out on its cleansing and forgiveness of sins!

 

Goat ‘B’ which is sent into the wilderness represents those that aren’t there, but those of future generations and all of humanity. (Rom 11:15, 2 Pet 3:9)

 

Being sent into the wilderness it only receives Aaron’s confession of sins but will at some point in the future receive the promise of redemption by the sacrifice of the real Lamb of God – Jesus Christ! But until then, like many that haven’t received Christ yet, is wondering in the wilderness.

 

The analogy for Christians is apparent. In our main study 'Secret of the Covenants' (Start Here) we have a pattern which emerges with the same theme - God's plan offering salvation to all.

 

See also 'The Extra Holy Days'

Go to: Main Study - Start Here

Teachings of Christ from Deuteronomy – Part 2

The Teachings of Christ from the *Covenant in Deuteronomy - Part 2

 

When we refer to the teachings of Christ we are referring to the direct teachings that Christ Himself spoke, as well as His teachings reflected by those He taught - that is, His Disciples.

 

Most Bibles have references in their margins, referring to Christ's teachings, that can be tracked back, in most cases, to the Book of Deuteronomy.

 

The following is Part 2 of a three part series of charts, with references from the *Covenant in Deuteronomy with corresponding teachings of Christ. 

 

Note: this is not a comprehensive list and is being continually updated. (all references from the RSV Bible unless otherwise stated)

 

*(For more information on the Covenant in Deuteronomy please go to our main study - Welcome to our Study: Start Here)

Part 2: Statutes Governing Worship and a Holy Life:

 

Deuteronomy Chapters 12 -16

 

Deut 12:1 These are the statutes and ordinances that you must diligently observe in the land that the Lord, ... has given you to occupy all the days that you live …

 

  • John 14:15 (Jesus) “If you love me, keep my commandments”

 

Deut 12:2-3 You must demolish completely all the places where the nations whom you are about to dispossess served their gods ...Break down their altars, smash their pillars…

 

  • 1 Cor 10:14 (Paul) ... flee from the worship of idols.

 

Deut 12: 5-18 But you shall seek the place that the Lord your God will choose ... You shall go there, bringing your burnt offerings…

 

  • John 4:20-23 (Jesus talking to the Women at the well) ... V23 when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, John 7: 2, 10, 14, 37 Jesus goes to the Feast

 

Deut 12: 9 Take care you do not neglect the Levite as long as you live in your land.

 

  • 1 Cor 9:14 (Paul refers to those who serve in the temple) ... the Lord commanded that those who proclaim the Gospel should get their living by the gospel. Also 2 Cor 11:8-9

 

Deut 12:28 ... obey all these words so that it may go well with you and your children forever, because you will be doing what is good and right in the sight of the Lord

 

  • Ephes 6: 1-3 Children, obey your parents in the Lord for this is right...so that it may be well with you…

 

Deut 12:30 Take heed that you do not ensnare to follow them, ... and that you do not inquire about their gods, saying ‘How did these nations serve their gods? - that I may do likewise.’

 

  • Rom 1:20-23 ...they exchanged God, for images resembling a man, birds, animals

 

Deut 13:1-2 If a prophet arises among you,... and gives you a sign or a wonder ... and if he says, ‘Let us go after other gods’... you shall not listen to the words of that prophet... 

 

  • Matt 24:23-24 (V24) false messiahs and false prophets will appear, to lead astray... 

 

Deut 14:1-2 You must not cut yourselves or shave your foreheads for the dead, for you are a people holy to the Lord your God …

 

  • 1 Cor 6:9-10 ... the unrighteous will not inherit the Kingdom of God ... neither the immoral, nor idolaters, nor ... will inherit the Kingdom of God Also 1 Pet 2:9

 

Deut 14:3-21 You shall not eat any abominable thing. These are the animal you may eat: the ox, the sheep ... Animal that divide the hoof and chew the cud…

 

  • Acts 10:14 (Peter) “No Lord, for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean” Also Acts 11:8 

 

Deut 14:22-26 “You shall tithe all the yield of your seed, which comes forth from the field year by year, in the place which He will choose, ... you shall eat the tithe…

 

  • John 7:2, 10, 14 & 37 (V2) festival of booths was near ... (V10) after his brothers had gone to the festival, then he also went...(V37) the last day of the Feast, ... Jesus stood up…

 

Deut 14:28 At the end of every three years you shall bring forth all the tithe of your produce in the same year... the Levite, the widow, shall eat and be filled …

 

  • Acts 4:32-37 (a similar concept of providing and sharing so everyone had according to their needs)

 

Deut 15:1  At the end of every seven years you shall grant a release,...every creditor shall release what he has lent ...because the Lord’s release has been proclaimed

 

  • Luke 4:18-19 “... he has anointed me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight ...liberty...the acceptable year of the Lord (commonly known as Year of Jubilee)

 

Deut 15:7 If there is among you a poor man...(V10) You shall give to him freely

 

  • Rom 15:25 - 27  At present, however, I am going to Jerusalem with aid for the saints.  For Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make some contribution for the poor among the saints at Jerusalem; they were pleased to do it, and indeed they are in debt to them, for if the Gentiles have come to share in their spiritual blessings, they ought also to be of service to them in material blessings., Also Luke 19:8, Gal 2:10, 2 Cor 9:8-9

 

Deut 15:12 ... he shall serve you 6 years, and in the seventh year you shall let him go free from you…

 

  • (-)

 

Deut 15:19  All the firstling males that are born of your herds...you shall consecrate to the Lord…

 

  • There is a New Covenant parallel for this verse as Jesus Christ was the sacrifice on which all would be saved. John 3:16-17 The sacrifice is that He was God’s only son and became flesh, John 1:14 and Phill 2: 5-8, He was without sin, Heb 4: 25 and 1 John 3: 5, therefore the firstborn of the dead is Christ, 1 Cor 15:23, also He was sinless - fitting the description of the first born male of the flock which was to be sacrificed.

 

Deut 16:1-8  ... keep the Passover to the Lord, for six days you shall eat unleavened bread, on the seventh day there shall be a solemn assembly to the Lord

 

  • Luke 22:1,7  Now the Feast of Unleavened bread drew near, which is called the Passover. Also Matt 26:19, Luke 2:41

 

Deut 16:9 You shall count seven weeks ... feast of weeks (Pentecost) 

 

  • Acts 2:1 When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place…

 

Deut 16:13 You shall keep the feast of booths seven days

 

  • John 7:2, 7, 10, 14, & 37 Now the Jew’s Feast of Tabernacles was at hand, (V10) then he also went up, not publically but in private.

 

Deut 16:16 Three times a year all your males shall appear before the Lord ... which he will choose; at the Feast of ULB, Feast of Weeks, Feast of Booths (Tabernacles)

 

  • John 7:2, 10, 14 & 37 (V2) festival of booths was near ... (V10) after his brothers had gone to the festival, then he also went...(V37) the last day of the Feast, ... Jesus stood up…

 

  • John 2: 23 Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover feast, many believed in his name when they saw the signs which he did;

.  

Deut 16:18 You shall appoint judges and officers in all your towns, you shall not pervert justice...you shall not take a bribe..

 

  • The principle of this scripture is to be of good conduct and honest, especially those in positions of authority. The following scriptures from Hebrews, Ephesians and James reflect this - Heb 13:18  ‘Pray for us, for we are sure that we have a clear conscience, desiring to act honorably in all things.’ Ephes 4:22 -32 and James 3:13-18

 

Deut 16:21-22 You shall not plant a tree as Asherah beside the altar of the Lord, ... you shall not set up a pillar, which the Lord your God hates.

 

  • 1Co 6:9  Do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither the immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor sexual perverts, 

 

Go to: Teachings of Christ from Deuteronomy: Part 1 

 

Go to: Teachings of Christ from Deuteronomy: Part 3 

Teachings of Christ from Deuteronomy – Part 1

The Teachings of Christ from the *Covenant in Deuteronomy - Part 1

 

When we refer to the teachings of Christ we are referring to the direct teachings that Christ Himself spoke, as well as His teachings reflected by those He taught - that is, His Disciples.

 

Most Bibles have references in their margins, referring to Christ's teachings, that can be tracked back, in most cases, to the Book of Deuteronomy.

 

The following is Part 1 of a three part series of charts, with references from the *Covenant in Deuteronomy with corresponding teachings of Christ.

 

Note: this is not a comprehensive list and is being continually updated. (all references from the RSV Bible unless otherwise stated)

 

*(For more information on the Covenant in Deuteronomy please go to our main study - Welcome to our Study - Start Here)

 

Part 1: The Ten Commandments:

 

Deut 5:7-21  The Ten Commandments

 

  1. You shall have no other gods before me. -

 

  • Matt 4:10 Matthew writes: ‘Then Jesus said to him, "Begone, Satan! for it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God and him only shall you serve.”’ Also Luke 4:8

 

  • Christ teaches: Matt 6:9 ‘Pray then like this: Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.’

 

  1. You shall not make for yourself a graven image (Idols), or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them; ...

 

  • 1 Cor 6:9, Paul teaches: ‘Do you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? ... Fornicators, idolaters, adulterers ... none of these will inherit the kingdom of God’.

 

  • 1 John 5:21 ‘Little children, keep yourselves from idols.’

 

  1. You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain: for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.

 

  • Col 3:8, Paul teaches: ‘But now you must get rid of all such things - anger, wrath, malice, slander (blasphemy KJV), and abusive language from your mouth.’ (see also Rom 8:7)

 

  1. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD your God commanded you. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work; but the seventh day is a sabbath to the LORD your God; in it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, or your manservant, or your maidservant, or your ox, or your ass, or any of your cattle, or the sojourner who is within your gates, that your manservant and your maidservant may rest as well as you.

 

  • Acts 13:14 ‘... And on the Sabbath day they went into the synagogue and sat down... v16: So Paul stood up and with a gesture began to speak: ...’

 

  1. Honor your father and your mother, as the LORD your God commanded you; that your days may be prolonged, and that it may go well with you, in the land which the LORD your God gives you.

 

  • Ephes 6:1-2, Paul teaches: ‘Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. Honour your father and mother - this is the first commandment with a promise;’

 

  1. You shall not kill (murder).

 

  • Rom 1:29, Paul writes: ‘They were filled with every kind of wickedness, ... Full of envy, murder, strife, deceit ...’

 

  • Jesus teaches in Matt 5:21-22  "You have heard that it was said to the men of old, 'You shall not kill; and whoever kills shall be liable to judgment.' But I say to you that every one who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment; whoever insults his brother shall be liable to the council, and whoever says, 'You fool!' shall be liable to the hell of fire.

 

  1. Neither shall you commit adultery.

 

  • Gal 5:19, Paul teaches: ‘Now the works of the flesh are obvious: fornication (adultery KJV), impurity, licentiousness, idolatry ... ‘

 

  • Jesus teaches: Matt 5:27-28  "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.' But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.

 

  1. Neither shall you steal.

 

  • Rom 13:9, Paul writes: ‘The commandments, ‘You shall not commit adultery; You shall not murder; You shall not steal; (bear false witness KJV), You shall not covert, ...’

 

  1. Neither shall you bear false witness against your neighbour.

 

  • Again - Rom 13:9 ‘The commandments, ‘You shall not commit adultery; You shall not murder; You shall not steal; (bear false witness KJV), You shall not covert, ...’

 

  1. Neither shall you covet your neighbor's wife; and you shall not desire your neighbor's house, his field, or his manservant, or his maidservant, his ox, or his ass, or anything that is your neighbor's.'

 

  • And again - Rom 13:9 ‘The commandments, ‘You shall not commit adultery; You shall not murder; You shall not steal; (bear false witness KJV), You shall not covert, ...’

 

 

Go to: Teachings of Christ from Deuteronomy: Part 2

Charts 8 & 9

These charts show the Statutes and Ordinances in Exodus and the Statutes and Ordinances in Deuteronomy, in a bit more detail than the previous charts, and to help illustrate the similarities we have highlighted the points that are the same in each book in green, and the points that are similar in both books we have highlighted in blue.

So you can see there are quite a few points that are different, which shows that the two covenants are not the same.

Exodus Covenant chart
Deuteronomy Covenant chart

Exodus 20 – 23 (Chart 2)

Chart 2: Exodus chapters 20 - 23 in detail (we will be referring to this section of Exodus in the main Study)

We have presented an overview of the events in the whole book of Exodus in Chart 1, Now we need to see where the Covenant, given on Mt Sinai is recorded. In Exodus chapter 19 it describes how it was delivered, but the actual Old Covenant, including the 10 Commandments, is written in Exodus chapters 20 to 23, and then ratified in chapter 24 (verse 8).

It is important to note that the 10 Commandments are a part of the Old Covenant - in fact it introduces the Covenant.

Exodus Chart 2 Part 1
Exodus Chart 2 Part 2

The First Five Books of the Bible in a Nut Shell

A quick overview of the first five books ....

To help you to understand the story of each book, a Bible Commentary can be used to get an overview of the contents - for the purposes of this study we have used the 'New English Commentary: Revised' as a guide to explain the times and events, broken up into chapters, of Israel's journey from Bondage to the Promised Land.

(For this study we are focusing on just four of the books listed below. To see a more detailed overview, and corresponding chart, click on the highlighted links.)

  • GENESIS - God's plan for mankind and promise to Abram for the future.
  • EXODUS - A nation called to be an example
  • LEVITICUS - Setting up the rules for nation under God
  • NUMBERS - The trip, including events along the way
  • DEUTERONOMY - Preparing to enter, and a guide to the Promised Land

What is the New Covenant?

What is the New Covenant?

Where is it?

and What does it contain?

 

As a Christian we accept Christ as our Saviour – but we also enter into an agreement, or Covenant with God – we read in Hebrews 9:15 that Christ is the Mediator of the New Testament.

Heb 9:15 Therefore he is the mediator of a new covenant...

'Testament' can also be translated as ‘Contract', 'Will' or 'Covenant’.

Heb 8:6 But as it is, Christ has obtained a ministry which is as much more excellent than the old as the covenant he mediates is better, since it is enacted on better promises. 

1Ti 2:5 But as it is, Christ has obtained a ministry which is as much more excellent than the old as the covenant he mediates is better, since it is enacted on better promises. 

So now we have a Mediator between God and men, and a Covenant.

*********

How does it affect our Christian walk - why is it important to know?

As Christians we accept Christ as our Saviour - BUT we also enter into an agreement, or 'Covenant' with God - With any contract or covenant, there are terms, or an agreement, by 2, or more parties.

(Dictionary definition of ‘Covenant’ …. ‘an agreement, usually formal, between two or more persons to do, or not to do, something specified; a formal agreement, contract, or promise in writing, agree by lease, deed, or other legal contract.’
Example – the agreement between God and the ancient Israelites, in which God promised to protect them if they kept His law and were faithful to Him.)

 

**********

Why was there a need for a NEW or better Covenant?

The Old Covenant was between Israel (consisting of 12 Tribes) and God, delivered at Mt Sinai through Moses. It consisted of The Ten Commandments, 70 Laws and statutes.

Moses read out the terms of the Old Covenant and all the people agreed, the covenant was then sealed (ratified) with the sprinkling of blood -
Exo 24:7-8 Then he took the book of the covenant, and read it in the hearing of the people; and they said, "All that the LORD has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient."  And Moses took the blood and threw it upon the people, and said, "Behold the blood of the covenant which the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words." 

It was a physical arrangement with physical rewards. As long as the people kept the laws then God would protect them and fight for them. The people didn’t have direct access to God but through Moses, then the Levitical priesthood.

There was no provision to forgive sin – through the Levitical priesthood there was only a ritual performed as a covering of sin and only once a year on the Day of Atonement.

This arrangement would have been fine if the Israelites were able to stick to God’s laws and not waver, and not sought after other Gods.

God had a plan to offer something better, but it wouldn’t come into effect until later.
Heb 8:7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, there would have been no occasion for a second.
Heb 10:4 For it is impossible that the blood of bulls and goats should take away sins. 

Christ became the ultimate sacrifice, His blood was shed – once and for all for those who believe on him would have their sins not just covered but forgotten!

Heb 10:16 -18  "This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, says the Lord: I will put my laws on their hearts, and write them on their minds," 
then he adds, "I will remember their sins and their misdeeds no more." 
Where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin. 

It is an incredible promise to those who believe in Christ and accept Him as their saviour - but what about the 'Covenant' part?

Heb 9:15 Therefore he is the mediator of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance, since a death has occurred which redeems them from the transgressions under the first covenant.

Why talk about a New Covenant if it seems that all you need to do is believe in Christ?

Consider these scriptures in Matthew 5 -
Mat 5:17 - 20 "Think not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets; I have come not to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the law until all is accomplished.  Whoever then relaxes one of the least of these commandments and teaches men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but he who does them and teaches them shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. 

And …
John 14:15 "If you love me, you will keep my commandments.

So there is still emphasis on ‘Laws’ and ‘Commandments’. Christ talks about writing His Laws into their hearts and in their minds – what Laws?

The OLD Covenant is written in Exodus – is it possible that the New Covenant is also recorded in the Bible?

Are there TWO Covenants with God’s people in the Bible?

Before we can answer this question we need to become familiar with the content of the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy and the timeline of these four books. See: The first Five Books of the Bible in a Nut Shell, before going into the main Study - Start Here.

***********************************

The video below, relating to the Christian Passover, presented by Ronald L Dart from Born to Win, refers to a New Covenant and the relationship Christians enter in to with God through Jesus Christ.